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Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia

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Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia

B.W. Urban & M. Barann (editors)
This book contains condensed papers of the contributions presented at the "Sixth International Conference on Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia", held in Bonn in June 2001. Ascending the hierarchical order of the central nervous system from molecules to intact organisms, the materials have been arranged following the organization of the conference: Molecular Basis of Anesthetic Interactions, Anesthetic Interactions with Ion Channels and Other Proteins, Integration of Anesthetic Actions (In-Vitro) and, finally, In-Vivo-Networks. In addition to insights at the molecular level, exciting results have been obtained from the various in-vitro slice preparations and from in-vivo electrophysiology as well as from in-vivo functional imaging, indicating a much higher level of complexity than originally appreciated.

M. Barann, K. W. Miller, C. D. Richards, S. H. Roth, B. W. Urban: Preface: Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia
G. S. Bause: Bernard Raymond Fink, M.D., F.F.A.R.C.S. (1914-2000)
1. Molecular Basis of Anesthetic Interactions
1.1 Modelling
J. R. Trudell, E. Bertaccini: Molecular Modelling of Anesthetic Binding Sites in Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
J. S. Johansson, G. A. Manderson: The Effect of Aromatic Amino Acid Side-Chain Structure on Halothane Binding to Four-Helix Bundles
Y. Kaminoh, C. Tashiro, H. Kamaya: The Interaction of Local Anesthetics with the DMPG Membrane
K. Ogli: Halothane Decreases the Viscosity of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Solution
1.2 Molecular Targets
E. A. Barnard: The Range of Channel Structures and Their Potential Sites for Anesthetic Interaction
J. P. Dilger, D. Oustecky, C. J. Tzan: Kinetics Count! Examples Using the Acetylcholine Receptor
E. I. Eger II: What Have We Learned from Nonimmobilizers?
M. Jetzek-Zader, P. Lipfert: Characterisation of Anesthetic Target Sites by Fluorescence: Acridine and Methyl Salicylate Have Anesthetic Properties and Interact with Albumin and Octanol
C. Sandorfy: Towards a Comprehensive Theory of General Anesthesia
2. Anesthetic Interactions with Ion Channels and Other Proteins
2.1 Nicotinic ACh Receptors
H. R. Arias, E. A. McCardy, M. J. Gallagher, M. P. Blanton: A Barbiturate Binding Site in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ion Channel
P. Flood, J. M. Sonner: Behavioral Results of Isoflurane Inhibition of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
P. Friederich, A. Dybek, M. Barann, B. W. Urban: SH-SY5Y cells: A Model for the Study of Pharmacological Action on Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Sympathetic Ganglions
T. Narahashi, J. Z. Yeh, T. Mori, G. L. Aistrup, W. Marszalec, Y. Zuo, X. Zhao: Role of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Mechanism of General Anesthesia
T. Narahashi, J. Z. Yeh, G. L. Aistrup, Y. Zuo, W. Marzalec : Modulation of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Alcohols
R. J. Claycomb, S. A. Forman, D. E. Raines : Inhibition of Alpha4Beta2 Rat Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Nonhalogenated Alkane Anesthetics and Perhalogenated Alkane Nonimmobilizers
I. Wenningmann, D. Demazumder, J. P. Dilger: The Kinetics of Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Metocurine
2.2 GABAA Receptors
M. H. Akabas, J. Horenstein, D. B. Williams, M. Bali, A. K. Bera: GABA- and Drug-Induced Conformational Changes Detected in the GABAA Receptor Channel-Lining Segments
G. Akk, J. H. Steinbach: Do Barbiturates Affect How GABAA Receptors Open or How They Close?
G. Haeseler, B. Mohammadi, K. Krampfl, M. Leuwer, R. Dengler, S. Piepenbrock, J. Bufler: The Potency of a Phenol Derivative for Direct Activation of Chloride Currents via GABAA Receptors is Related to the Position of Methyl and Isopropyl Groups with Respect to the Phenolic Hydroxyl Group
2.3 Other Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
M. Barann, B. W. Urban: Anesthetic Actions on 5-HT3 Receptors: Separate Access Routes and Separate Mechanisms?
R. A. Harris, M. P. Mascia, I. A. Lobo: Sites of Anesthetic Action on a Ligand-Gated Ion Channel
2.4 Potassium Channels
Z. J. Bosnjak : Anesthetic-Induced Cardiac Preconditioning
M. Gruß, M. Henrich, P. König, G. Hempelmann, W. Vogel, A. Scholz: Ethanol Modifies Action Potentials in a Subtype of Small Sensory Neurones by Activation of BKCa-Channels
L. G. Weigl, H. Kress, W. Schreibmayer: G Protein Gated Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels Are Targets for Volatile Anesthetics
C. S. Yost, C. H. Kindler: Tandem Pore (2P) Domain K+ Channels as Anesthetic Targets
2.5 Local Anesthetics M. D. Baker: Function and Local Anesthetic Block of Late Na+ Current in Sensory Neurones
G. L. McKinney, J. A. Harris, R. P. Burton, R. B. Fisher, G. R. Kracke: Inhibition of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channels by the Local Anesthetics Mexiletine and Lidocaine
C. Nau, S. Y. Wang, G. K. Wang: Involvement of Sodium Channel Transmembrane Segments S6 in Local Anesthetic Binding
A. Scholz: Blockade of TTX-Resistant Na+ Currents by Local Anesthetics: Functional Impact in Sensory Neurones
S. K. W. Schwarz, E. Puil: CNS Effects of Local Anesthetics: Novel Lidocaine Actions in the Thalamus
2.6 Other Proteins C. Hönemann, S. Berning, B. Linck, K. Hahnenkamp, J. Nollet, H. van Aken: Inhibitory Effect of Bupivacaine on Lysophosphatidate (LPA) Signaling - An Alternativ Mechanism: Stimulation of Protein Phosphatases (PP)?
M. Maze: Adrenergic Receptors Are Sites for the Analgesic Response to General Anesthetics
P. Nagele, W. J. Placzek, C. M. Crowder: Isoflurane Binds to Presynaptic SNARE Proteins
J. Nollet, K. Hahnenkamp, S. Sertel, T. Podranski, S. Berning, H. van Aken, E. Mortier, M. E. Durieux, C. W. Hönemann: Effect of Volatile and Local Anesthetics on PGE2 and TXA2 Receptors
S. Wittmann, S. Daniels, D. Fröhlich: Thiopentone and Propofol Inhibit the Expression of FMLP Receptors in Human Neutrophils in Vitro
3. Integration of Anesthetic Actions (In-Vitro)
3.1 Subcellular and Cellular Actions
S. Baudoux, R. M. Empson, C. D. Richards: General Anesthetics Do Not Prevent Action Potential Invasion of Axon Branches or Synaptic Boutons
H. C. Hemmings Jr., W. OuYang, R. I. Westphalen: Presynaptic Targets for General Anesthetics
C. H. Kindler: Nonimmobilizers Do Not Cause Muscle Contractures in Patients Susceptible to Malignant Hyperthermia
M. C. Moe, J. Berg-Johnsen, M. L. Vinje: The Effect of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane on Presynaptic Protein Kinase C Activity
B. A. Orser, D. T. Joo, G. Zhu, J. Roder, M. F. Jackson, Z.-P. Jia, J. F. MacDonald: Increased Desensitization of AMPA Receptors May Cause Hypersensitivity to Anesthetics in GluR2 Null Mutant Mice
M. Perouansky: Anesthetic Targets on the Glutamatergic Terminal - Why Bother?
C. Stößel, P. W. L. Tas, N. Roewer: Inhibition of the Capacitative Ca2+-Entry of Primary Endothelial Cells by Volatile Anesthetics
W. Zink, B. M. Graf, E. Martin, R. H. A. Fink, G. Kunst: Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis by Tetracaine in Skinned Skeletal Muscle Fibres - Reasons for Its Moderate Myotoxicity?
3.2 Networks (Slices)
T. Asahi, K. Hirota, R. Sasaki, M. Yamazaki: Effects of Volatile Anesthetics, n-Alcohols and Ketamine on Synaptic and Non-Synaptic Pathways in Rat Hippocampal Slices in Vitro
C. Benkwitz, N. Roewer, B. Antkowiak: Anesthetic Action on Neuronal Network Activity in Hippocampus: Electrophysiology and Ca-Imaging
C. Grasshoff, B. Antkowiak: Effects of Volatile Anesthetics on Action Potential Firing of Spinal Neurons in Organotypic Slice Cultures
K. Hirota, T. Asahi, R. Sasaki, M. Yamazaki, S. H. Roth: The Agent- and Pathway-Specific Actions of General Anesthetics in Hippocampus in Vitro
J. Kendig: Anesthetic Actions on the Spinal Cord in Vitro
S. H. Roth, N. Samanani, D. P. Archer: Receptor-Mediated Excitatory Effects of General Anesthetics
R. Sasaki, K. Hirota, M. Yamazaki: Barbiturates Accelerate the Recovery from Brief Hypoxia in Area CA1 of Rat Hippocampal Slices
3.3 Other Networks
U. Guenther, A. M. Bischoff, D. Kettler, D. W. Richter: 5-HT1A-Agonists Protect Against Opioidergic Depression of Respiration
S. Pentyala, J. Halpern-Lewis, An. Sawas, D. Rosa, Ay. Sawas, M. Rebecchi, S. Vitkun: Intravenous Anesthetics Reduce Airway Resistance by Their Action on Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump
P. W. L. Tas, C. Eisemann, N. Roewer: The Volatile Anesthetic Halothane Suppresses Spontaneous Calcium Oscillations in Hippocampal Neurons by Activation of Adenosine A1 Receptors
4. In-Vivo-Networks
4.1 Human
W. Heinke, C. Schwarzbauer: Subanesthetic Isoflurane Affects Task-Induced Brain Activation in a Highly Specific Manner: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
P. Jakubow, J. J. Braszko: The Effect of Propofol on Short Term Memory After Anesthesia
S. Nishimura, S. Yokono, N. Taenaka, T. Mashimo: General Anesthesia Suppresses Nocturnal Melatonin Secretion
B. Rehberg, T. Kammer, H. C. Wartenberg, I. Wenningmann, B. W. Urban: Effects of Sevoflurane and Propofol on the Human Motor System
R. A. Veselis, R. A. Reinsel, V. A. Feshchenko: Novel Insights into Drug - Memory Interactions Using Functional Neuroimaging (FNI) Techniques
4.2 Animal
A. Angel: Oscillations in an Apparent Steady-State of Anesthesia
A. Angel: Effects of Xenon on Somatosensory Transmission in the Rat
J. F. Antognini, E. Carstens: Spinal Cord Actions of Halothane, Thiopental and Isoflurane
J. F. Antognini, E. Carstens, M. Sudo, S. Sudo: Thiopental Directly Depresses Lumbar Dorsal Horn Neurons in Goats
O. Detsch, W. Reeker, M. Siemers, E. Kochs, B. Bromm, C. Vahle-Hinz: Suppression of Tactile Information Transfer by Isoflurane Within the Central Nervous System
S. Gamo, A. Tamai, I. Hotta, T. Koma, Y. Tanaka: A Possible Anesthetic Pathway of Diethylether Derived from Drosophila Mutants
H. Nakao, T. Uefuji, N. Miyashita: Enflurane Sensitivities of Mice May depend on the Color of the Fur
J. M. Sonner: GABAA Receptors Contribute Minimally to Isoflurane MAC
P. H. Tonner: Does the NO/cGMP Signal Transduction Pathway Mediate the Action of General Anesthetics?
C. Vahle-Hinz, W. Reeker, O. Detsch, M. Siemers, E. Kochs, B. Bromm: Antinociceptive Effects of Anesthetics in Vivo: Thalamic Neuronal Responses and Cellular Mechanisms
4.3 Anesthetic Depth
E. I. Eger II: Anesthesia Produced by Inhaled Anesthetics Is an Immediately Reversible State Mediated by the Central Nervous System that Consists of Amnesia and Immobility in the Face of Noxious Stimulation
T. Engelhardt, H. F. Galley, F. M. MacLennan, N. R. Webster: Changes of Saliva Cyclic GMP in Healthy Volunteers and Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia
C. Lynch III: MAC - A Clinical Point of View
J. M. Sonner: Population Variability in MAC: What Is It and What Does It Mean?
M. Bleckwenn, B. W. Urban: Is the Meyer-Overton Correlation Still Relevant?

Pabst Science Publishers, Hardcover, 588 pages

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